Giuseppi Garibaldi was born 1807, died in 1882. He was declared Father of the Fatherland after his death. He was born in Nice, France of Italian parents. After 1814,Nice became part of Vienna and Austro-Hungarian Empire. His family moved to Sardinia. His family were sea merchants and he followed in their footsteps. He became a merchant marine captain in 1832.
In Russia, in 1833, he met Giovanni Cuneo, who, in turned, introduced to the secret society, Young Italians, which was lead by Giuseppe Mazzini. Mazzini wanted an united Italy, under Republican rule. From then on Garibaldi swore to unite Italy into a liberal Republic. Austria dominated northern Italy. Later that year, he met Mazzini in Geneva, Switzerland. Mazzini had him jopin another secret society, The Carboneri. He joined Mazzini in a failed attempt to create an insurrection in the Piedmont. Genoa sentenced him to death. He fled to Marseilles.
From there, he went to Tunisia. Then to Brazil. He joined the Ragmuffins, a radical group in Brazil. There he met Ana de Silva, his future wife. She fought by his side during their whole marriage.
In 1841, he and Anita (his name for her) moved to Monte Video, Uruguay. He worked there as a trader and schoolmaster. The couple married a year later. They had 4 children. Anita was a skilled horse woman and taught Garibaldi how to be a gaucho. Around this time, he wore a red shirt, poncho, and sombrero, which he was known for the rest of his life.
In 1842, he formed the Italian Legion of Italian refugees in Uruguay. They were also known as The Red Shirts. The Italian Legion flew a black flag.
In 1844, he was initiated into Freemasonry in Uruguay. At the time, Latin American Masons made asylums for Europeans fleeing from their countries. Later, he became Grand Master of his Masonic Lodge, The Grand Orient of Italy.
Pope Pius IX was elected and promised reforms in 1846.
In 1849, Garlbaldi led a revolt in Palermo with 60 of Legion. From there, he went on to the Piedmont, Lombardy, Milan. It was the First Italian War of Independence. He went to the Papal States that claimed to be a Republic. Louis Napoleon ( Napoleon III) toppled over the Republic of Rome. Garibaldi went to Rome to defend it against the French.
In 1849, The Italian Republican Army under Garibaldi defeated the French, but the French came back and sieged Rome. Garibaldi escaped to the Apennines. Garibaldi was hunted down by the French, Austrians, Spanish, and Naples. He fled north to Venice. There, he fought the Austrians. His wife, Anita, died, giving birth to their 5th child.
Garibaldi went on to Tunisia. There, he returned to sea trading. He purchased his ship in NYC. Antonio Meucci had hired him as a candlestick maker in Staten Island.
In 1851, he left NYC for Central America. From there, he went on to Lima, Peru. There he met the revolutionary heroine,Manuela Saenz. He had commanded a trade ship, then. It had stopped at Chincha Island for guano. He went on to Canton, China, Manila, Philippines, India, Australia, Cape Horn, Chili, Boston and back to NYC.
Then, he left for Europe in 1853. He went to England. He went to Genoa in 1854. He settled down as a farmer in Caparera.
In 2nd Italian War of Independence in 1859, he was appointed as Major General of Italian Republican Army. He won victories over Austrians. Meanwhile, French surrendered Nice to Italy.
In 1860, he married Giuseppini Raimadi. That lasted a day.
He led uprisings in Messia and Palermo. He left Genoa to Marsala, Sicily with his Red Shirts. He declared himself as Dictator of Sicily. He had help from the British Royal Navy. He went on to Naples.
He retired to his farm in Caprera. He was commissioned as Major General, again.
In 1861, he set up the International Legion of Poles, Swiss, and Genoans to form Republics from Adriatic to the Baltic.
He went to Papal States and attacked Rome where Napoleon III held it. His motto was Rome or Death. He defeated Napoleon.
In 1866,Autro-Prussian War broke. Italy sided with the Prussians and Garibaldi volunteered in the Italian Army.
He came back to Rome, where French took over again. There, he was wounded and taken prison by the French. Garibaldi was released. He sought to end the Papacy.
Franco-Prussian War of 1870. The Italian Army captured the Papal states. Garibaldi supported the French 3rd Republic.
In 1879, he founded the League of Democracy.He pushed for universal suffrage, abolition of ecclesial property, emancipation of women. In 1880, he married for last time to Francisca Armosino. He contracted arthritis soon after. He died in 1882.