Monthly Archives: April 2017


Giuseppi Garibaldi was born 1807, died in 1882. He was declared Father of the Fatherland after his death. He was born in Nice, France of Italian parents. After 1814,Nice became part of Vienna and Austro-Hungarian Empire. His family moved to Sardinia. His family were sea merchants and he followed in their footsteps. He became a merchant marine captain in 1832.
In Russia, in 1833, he met Giovanni Cuneo, who, in turned, introduced to the secret society, Young Italians, which was lead by Giuseppe Mazzini. Mazzini wanted an united Italy, under Republican rule. From then on Garibaldi swore to unite Italy into a liberal Republic. Austria dominated northern Italy. Later that year, he met Mazzini in Geneva, Switzerland. Mazzini had him jopin another secret society, The Carboneri. He joined Mazzini in a failed attempt to create an insurrection in the Piedmont. Genoa sentenced him to death. He fled to Marseilles.
From there, he went to Tunisia. Then to Brazil. He joined the Ragmuffins, a radical group in Brazil. There he met Ana de Silva, his future wife. She fought by his side during their whole marriage.
In 1841, he and Anita (his name for her) moved to Monte Video, Uruguay. He worked there as a trader and schoolmaster. The couple married a year later. They had 4 children. Anita was a skilled horse woman and taught Garibaldi how to be a gaucho. Around this time, he wore a red shirt, poncho, and sombrero, which he was known for the rest of his life.
In 1842, he formed the Italian Legion of Italian refugees in Uruguay. They were also known as The Red Shirts. The Italian Legion flew a black flag.
In 1844, he was initiated into Freemasonry in Uruguay. At the time, Latin American Masons made asylums for Europeans fleeing from their countries. Later, he became Grand Master of his Masonic Lodge, The Grand Orient of Italy.
Pope Pius IX was elected and promised reforms in 1846.
In 1849, Garlbaldi led a revolt in Palermo with 60 of Legion. From there, he went on to the Piedmont, Lombardy, Milan. It was the First Italian War of Independence. He went to the Papal States that claimed to be a Republic. Louis Napoleon ( Napoleon III) toppled over the Republic of Rome. Garibaldi went to Rome to defend it against the French.
In 1849, The Italian Republican Army under Garibaldi defeated the French, but the French came back and sieged Rome. Garibaldi escaped to the Apennines. Garibaldi was hunted down by the French, Austrians, Spanish, and Naples. He fled north to Venice. There, he fought the Austrians. His wife, Anita, died, giving birth to their 5th child.
Garibaldi went on to Tunisia. There, he returned to sea trading. He purchased his ship in NYC. Antonio Meucci had hired him as a candlestick maker in Staten Island.
In 1851, he left NYC for Central America. From there, he went on to Lima, Peru. There he met the revolutionary heroine,Manuela Saenz. He had commanded a trade ship, then. It had stopped at Chincha Island for guano. He went on to Canton, China, Manila, Philippines, India, Australia, Cape Horn, Chili, Boston and back to NYC.
Then, he left for Europe in 1853. He went to England. He went to Genoa in 1854. He settled down as a farmer in Caparera.
In 2nd Italian War of Independence in 1859, he was appointed as Major General of Italian Republican Army. He won victories over Austrians. Meanwhile, French surrendered Nice to Italy.
In 1860, he married Giuseppini Raimadi. That lasted a day.
He led uprisings in Messia and Palermo. He left Genoa to Marsala, Sicily with his Red Shirts. He declared himself as Dictator of Sicily. He had help from the British Royal Navy. He went on to Naples.
He retired to his farm in Caprera. He was commissioned as Major General, again.
In 1861, he set up the International Legion of Poles, Swiss, and Genoans to form Republics from Adriatic to the Baltic.
He went to Papal States and attacked Rome where Napoleon III held it. His motto was Rome or Death. He defeated Napoleon.
In 1866,Autro-Prussian War broke. Italy sided with the Prussians and Garibaldi volunteered in the Italian Army.
He came back to Rome, where French took over again. There, he was wounded and taken prison by the French. Garibaldi was released. He sought to end the Papacy.
Franco-Prussian War of 1870. The Italian Army captured the Papal states. Garibaldi supported the French 3rd Republic.
In 1879, he founded the League of Democracy.He pushed for universal suffrage, abolition of ecclesial property, emancipation of women. In 1880, he married for last time to Francisca Armosino. He contracted arthritis soon after. He died in 1882.


Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno was born 1548 in the Kingdom of Naples There he was tutored privately by Augustinian monks. At age 7, he joined the Dominican Order. His metaphysics teacher was Giordo Crispo. He completed his novitiate and became ordained priest by 1572 at the age of 24. He developed art of memory techniques that served him well throughout his life. He went to Rome and showed it to Pope Pius V. He went on and wrote the book On the Ark of Noah and dedicated it to the pope.
Later, he developed a taste of the occult and forbidden books. He threw away images of saints and kept the Cross. He defended the Arian heresy that there is no Trinity and Jesus was not equal to God the Father. He even doubted the divinity of Jesus. Bruno took the banned book of Erasmus and annotated it. His copy of Erasmus book was found in a privy. He left Naples amidst indictments of heresy against him. He shed his Dominican robe.
In 1576, he went to Genoa, Savona, Turin, and Venice. There he published his book On Sign of the Times. Then, he went on to Padua. There he met fellow Dominicans and they convinced him to wear his habit, again. He went to Bergamo, crossed the Alps to Chambery and Lyon.
He went to Geneva in 1579. He entered his name in the Rector’s book at University of Geneva.. He did not accept Calvinism that he found there. He made himself a pair of breeches. He was given a sword, hat, cape, and other necessities by supporters. He attacked the prominent professor at University of Geneva, Professor Antoine de la Faye. He and his printer was arrested for what he published. He left Geneva.
He went on to Lyon, France, then to Toulouse in 158-81. He took a doctorate in theology while there. From there, he moved to Paris. His contemporaries thought his excellent memory was due to magic, but it was his mnemic system. King Henry III was impressed. He dedicated his next book to King Henry III.
In 1583, Bruno went on to England as a guest of the French ambassador Michel de Castelnan. There he became acquainted with the poet Philip Sydney, who, in turn, the Hermetic Order under court magician John Dee.
He lectured at Oxford. He met George Abbot, who later became Archbishop of Canterbury. Abbot mocked Bruno’s acceptance of Copernicus idea of Sun being center. Giordano, also, believed there are other solar systems. Stars are suns with planets revolving around them. That there might be life on other planets and that the heavens are infinite.
John Bosry accused Bruno of being a spy who was spying on Catholics for Queen Elizabeth and going under name of Henry Fagot. That wasn’t true.
An English scientist, Thomas Digger, had proposed the Universe was infinite in 1576. Bruno heard of it and adopted it.
In 1585, the French embassy was attacked by a mole. Bruno escaped to Paris. There he put up theories against Aristotelian natural science.
In 1586, he led a quarrel against scientist Fabriza Mordento and invented a differential compass. The argument against Mordento put him out of favor of the French king. So he went to Germany. He taught at Wittenberg. He lectured on Aristotle for next two years. Then, he moved to Prague in 1588. He received a salary of 300 talers a year, but no position under Rudolf II. He went on to Helmstat, but fled again when he was excommunicated by local Lutherans.
He wrote a book on magic 1589-90.
In 1590, he went to Frankfurt. He got invitation to Venice at a book fair there by Giovanni Mocenigo. He went first to Padua, where he heard there was a mathematics teaching position there, but Galileo got the position.
Bruno came to Venice in 1592. He became a private tutor to Mocenigo. Mocenigo was unhappy with Bruno and denounced him to the local Inquisition. He was charged with blasphemy and heresy. He admitted he had some doubts about church dogma. Bruno was transferred to Rome by 1593. There, he was confined Tower of Dona for 7 years.. He admitted to charges that he doubted the virginity of Mary and claimed to plurality of life in other worlds. He believed in reincarnation, dealings with magic and the occult. He denied the divinity of Jesus. He believed in Averroes’ Arabic astrology.
On January 1, 1600, Pope Clement VIII declared Bruno a heretic and the Inquisition gave him sentence of death. They pierced his tonque and burned him at the stake. His ashes was thrown into the Tiber River. One of his Inquistors became Pope Paul V. Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe were his contemporaries.