John J. Pershing

John .J. Pershing was born in 1860. He became president and captain of his West Point Class of 1186. He was nearby when Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 happened. He did not participate, but was there to clean up afterwards. He served in Spanish-American War of 1899. He went on to Filipino War of 1906-13. Then, he lead an expedition against Pancho Villa in 1916. It was first use of Twentieth Century weapons and vehicles. It was also first use of tanks. In 1917, Woodrow Wilson appointed him head of US force in Europe during World War I. He helped integrate the Allie Forces and got Germany to surrender. US and allies had made armistice treaty with Germany, though Pershing wanted complete and unconditional surrender. The Armistice was signed on Nov. 11 on the 11th hour. After the war, he served Army Chief of Staff from 1922-24.
Back in 1897, he had returned to West Point and became head of West Point discipline. The cadets resented him and called him “Nigger Jack” or “Black Jack”. A derogatory term. But it stuck after he lead an African-American force, The Tenth Cavalry, up San Juan Hill,Cuba in Spanish- American War.
He was described as being ” cool as cracked rice.
He married Helen Frances Warren, daughter of chairman of Senate Military Affairs Committee in 1905. He was friends with Teddy Roosevelt during Spanish-American War. Roosevlet made him Brigadier General and to appoint him to pursue Pancho Villa.
Pershing made George C. Marshall head of staff in 1940.During WW1, he had blacks go to the French to fight Germans, because the American forces did not want blacks with them. He was mentor to Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, George Patton, and Douglas C. MacArthur.
Pershing was a teacher at African-American school briefly in Laclede, Missouri in 1878. In 1880, he attended North Missouri Normal School, now Truman State University. He went to West Point in 1882. He was with West Point Honor Guard that escorted body of U.S. Grant to his funeral.
In 1886, he was at Bayard, New Mexico, with the Sixth Calvary. He made several attacks against the Apaches.
In 1890, he was North Dakota fighting the Lakotas. After Wounded Knee on January 1, 1891, his supply wagons were attacked by Chief War Eagle and his Lakotas. He saw a ghost dance campaign in 1895, while he was command of 10th Calvary, Buffalo soldiers. The same calvary he led in Spanish-American War.
He was an observer of Japanese in Manchuria in 1905. He died in 1948.


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