Monthly Archives: February 2017

George Berkeley

George Berkeley was born in Ireland in 1685.mHe died in Oxford, England in 1753.
He graduated from Trinity College and stayed as Greek lecturer and tutor.
His first book was on mathematics.
His second book was An Essay toward New Theory of Vision was controversial theory on optics.
His next book was A Treatise Concerning Principles of Human Knowledge, which was the beginning of his philosophy. He wrote that nothing exists out of the mind. Our world depend on our perceptions. Of course he met ridicule over it. The old saw, “If a tree falls and no one hears, does it make a sound?” He would answer, ” No.”
He went to England in 1714. From there he took tours around Europe. In England, he earned a Doctorate of Divinity degree. He returned to Ireland and Trinity College in Dublin. There, he taught divinity and Hebrew.
In 1721, he was madeDean. Esther Vanhornrigh declared him heir of her fortunes, though neither had met each other. It was through dealings with her estate, he met Jonathan Swift, a friend of hers. They became close friends in 1725. Berkely used the money from the estate and went to Bermuda. There, he founded a college for the Native Americans. It was also training for ministers and missionaries. That same year, he married Anne Foster. Then, he went on to Newport, Rhode Island. He bought with him John Similient, America’s first portrait artist.
He ran out funds in 1732 and returned to London. There he created The Foundlings, a hospital for homeless children.
In 1734, he became Bishop of Cloyne, Ireland. There, he wrote many uses of pine tar, including as a panacea for many diseases.
He saw everything as spirit. The spirit produce and perceives ideas. God is immediate cause of All. He died in 1753.

John J. Pershing

John .J. Pershing was born in 1860. He became president and captain of his West Point Class of 1186. He was nearby when Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 happened. He did not participate, but was there to clean up afterwards. He served in Spanish-American War of 1899. He went on to Filipino War of 1906-13. Then, he lead an expedition against Pancho Villa in 1916. It was first use of Twentieth Century weapons and vehicles. It was also first use of tanks. In 1917, Woodrow Wilson appointed him head of US force in Europe during World War I. He helped integrate the Allie Forces and got Germany to surrender. US and allies had made armistice treaty with Germany, though Pershing wanted complete and unconditional surrender. The Armistice was signed on Nov. 11 on the 11th hour. After the war, he served Army Chief of Staff from 1922-24.
Back in 1897, he had returned to West Point and became head of West Point discipline. The cadets resented him and called him “Nigger Jack” or “Black Jack”. A derogatory term. But it stuck after he lead an African-American force, The Tenth Cavalry, up San Juan Hill,Cuba in Spanish- American War.
He was described as being ” cool as cracked rice.
He married Helen Frances Warren, daughter of chairman of Senate Military Affairs Committee in 1905. He was friends with Teddy Roosevelt during Spanish-American War. Roosevlet made him Brigadier General and to appoint him to pursue Pancho Villa.
Pershing made George C. Marshall head of staff in 1940.During WW1, he had blacks go to the French to fight Germans, because the American forces did not want blacks with them. He was mentor to Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, George Patton, and Douglas C. MacArthur.
Pershing was a teacher at African-American school briefly in Laclede, Missouri in 1878. In 1880, he attended North Missouri Normal School, now Truman State University. He went to West Point in 1882. He was with West Point Honor Guard that escorted body of U.S. Grant to his funeral.
In 1886, he was at Bayard, New Mexico, with the Sixth Calvary. He made several attacks against the Apaches.
In 1890, he was North Dakota fighting the Lakotas. After Wounded Knee on January 1, 1891, his supply wagons were attacked by Chief War Eagle and his Lakotas. He saw a ghost dance campaign in 1895, while he was command of 10th Calvary, Buffalo soldiers. The same calvary he led in Spanish-American War.
He was an observer of Japanese in Manchuria in 1905. He died in 1948.

The Last Emperor of Korea

Sujong was second and last emperor of Korea. He was born on 1874. He was fourth son of Emperor Gojong. He was of the Yi Dynasty.
In 1882, he married Crown Princess Min, who had Chinese ties. His father established the empire in 1897. Then, Gojong was deposed by Japanese in 1907.Also in 1907 was the Russo-Japanese War.Sujong took over as Emperor soon afterwards. He signed the Japanese Korean Treaty in that same year. This allowed Japanese ministers to supervise Korean affairs. Queen Min will not have any of this and she divorced from Sujong. The Korean Army was dismissed in 1909.Queen Min brought in Chinese advisors. Japan planned to annex Korea. Japan and Russia negotiated over Manchuria and Korea. China had last emperor of China. Ito, the Japanese negotiator was assassinated by Korean activists in Harbin, Manchuria. This made Japan put in an occupational force in Korea. The Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910 allowed Japan to take over Korea, the Emperor resigned. He and his second wife, Empress Sunjeong, lived rest of their lives in prison in Leabil, Korea. His father died in 1919, which sent off a Korean student rebellion. Japanese eased off some its control in Korea.Sujong and his two wives (not Min among them) were in the prison island until his death in 1926, which started another Korean rebellion that Japanese put down. Japanese controlled Korea until 1945.