Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno was born 1548 in the Kingdom of Naples There he was tutored privately by Augustinian monks. At age 7, he joined the Dominican Order. His metaphysics teacher was Giordo Crispo. He completed his novitiate and became ordained priest by 1572 at the age of 24. He developed art of memory techniques that served him well throughout his life. He went to Rome and showed it to Pope Pius V. He went on and wrote the book On the Ark of Noah and dedicated it to the pope.
Later, he developed a taste of the occult and forbidden books. He threw away images of saints and kept the Cross. He defended the Arian heresy that there is no Trinity and Jesus was not equal to God the Father. He even doubted the divinity of Jesus. Bruno took the banned book of Erasmus and annotated it. His copy of Erasmus book was found in a privy. He left Naples amidst indictments of heresy against him. He shed his Dominican robe.
In 1576, he went to Genoa, Savona, Turin, and Venice. There he published his book On Sign of the Times. Then, he went on to Padua. There he met fellow Dominicans and they convinced him to wear his habit, again. He went to Bergamo, crossed the Alps to Chambery and Lyon.
He went to Geneva in 1579. He entered his name in the Rector’s book at University of Geneva.. He did not accept Calvinism that he found there. He made himself a pair of breeches. He was given a sword, hat, cape, and other necessities by supporters. He attacked the prominent professor at University of Geneva, Professor Antoine de la Faye. He and his printer was arrested for what he published. He left Geneva.
He went on to Lyon, France, then to Toulouse in 158-81. He took a doctorate in theology while there. From there, he moved to Paris. His contemporaries thought his excellent memory was due to magic, but it was his mnemic system. King Henry III was impressed. He dedicated his next book to King Henry III.
In 1583, Bruno went on to England as a guest of the French ambassador Michel de Castelnan. There he became acquainted with the poet Philip Sydney, who, in turn, the Hermetic Order under court magician John Dee.
He lectured at Oxford. He met George Abbot, who later became Archbishop of Canterbury. Abbot mocked Bruno’s acceptance of Copernicus idea of Sun being center. Giordano, also, believed there are other solar systems. Stars are suns with planets revolving around them. That there might be life on other planets and that the heavens are infinite.
John Bosry accused Bruno of being a spy who was spying on Catholics for Queen Elizabeth and going under name of Henry Fagot. That wasn’t true.
An English scientist, Thomas Digger, had proposed the Universe was infinite in 1576. Bruno heard of it and adopted it.
In 1585, the French embassy was attacked by a mole. Bruno escaped to Paris. There he put up theories against Aristotelian natural science.
In 1586, he led a quarrel against scientist Fabriza Mordento and invented a differential compass. The argument against Mordento put him out of favor of the French king. So he went to Germany. He taught at Wittenberg. He lectured on Aristotle for next two years. Then, he moved to Prague in 1588. He received a salary of 300 talers a year, but no position under Rudolf II. He went on to Helmstat, but fled again when he was excommunicated by local Lutherans.
He wrote a book on magic 1589-90.
In 1590, he went to Frankfurt. He got invitation to Venice at a book fair there by Giovanni Mocenigo. He went first to Padua, where he heard there was a mathematics teaching position there, but Galileo got the position.
Bruno came to Venice in 1592. He became a private tutor to Mocenigo. Mocenigo was unhappy with Bruno and denounced him to the local Inquisition. He was charged with blasphemy and heresy. He admitted he had some doubts about church dogma. Bruno was transferred to Rome by 1593. There, he was confined Tower of Dona for 7 years.. He admitted to charges that he doubted the virginity of Mary and claimed to plurality of life in other worlds. He believed in reincarnation, dealings with magic and the occult. He denied the divinity of Jesus. He believed in Averroes’ Arabic astrology.
On January 1, 1600, Pope Clement VIII declared Bruno a heretic and the Inquisition gave him sentence of death. They pierced his tonque and burned him at the stake. His ashes was thrown into the Tiber River. One of his Inquistors became Pope Paul V. Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe were his contemporaries.


Wet,slushy snow

Wet, slushy snow smeared

Into a muddy mess

On virgin white, snowy ground

Under a tree near tires of  car.

Six miles to grandparents’ house.

Six miles of unpaved, unplowed dirt road.

Father knew unerringly

Where the road was,

Even though it was hard to tell road from fields.

The road was straight, the sky was gray.

The station wagon full of children

And a pair of adults.

Over the railroad tracks,

Over the girder bridge.

The bridge over icy stream.

The driver veered left from the strawberry fields.

Rose bushes in front of the farmhouse.

Turn right up an incline.

Another right to behind the house.

Rambunctious kids piling out

Of the station wagon  to play in the snow.



Death of a Childhood Friend

Recently I heard of a passing

Of a childhood friend.

I first met him in second grade, riding

A bicycle while I was walking alongside a highway.

He wanted to beat me.

To test my meddle?

For no apparent reason, we fought.

I beat him up.

He left me alone after that.

Eventually, we became friends.

Then, I moved away in seventh grade.

I saw him from time to time after I got my car.

He would chortle like he was up to something.

He graduated from his high school, same time I did

In my high school.

He was five foot, six inches tall,

Slightly dumpy and a crew cut.

He became a welder. while I schlepped  through life.

He went through several marriages.

He had three boys from the marriages.

About sometime ago,his sister,

Who was threeyears younger,

Told meHe was in the hospital.

Pancreas,gallbladder, and prostrate had to be removed.

I suspected he wasn’t going to live long.

His sister gave hope he would make it through.

He went into a coma, on a ventilator,

and a feeding tube.

He recovered and was sitting up,

Hoping all was left was physical therapy.

But the feeding tube got lodged in his lungs.

They had to give him tracheotomy.

His sister telling to breathe, damn you, breathe.

Then, he had a heart attack and another coma.

He stopped breathing.

Oh my God! He is gone!

His sister hurriedly arranged everything,

But was too busy to tell me.

I don’t blame her.

I learned through facebook several days later.

He was buried in same cemetery where my grandparents, aunts, uncle, and a cousin was Buried.

He was buried.

His sister misses her buddy.



Simon Girty: Hero or Villain?

For a long time American historians portrayed Simon Girty as the villain against Daniel Boone and other frontiersmen. Was he?Native Americans knew him as a hero.
He was born in 1741 near Harrisburg. He was captured during the French and Indian War by Senecas.That was in 1751. He was released in 1759 to Ft. Pitt. There he became a trusted interpreter,hunter, and scout.
He was nicknamed the White Savage.
How he was captured by the Senecas is an adventure by itself.His parents was going to sell him and his brothers to slavery to pay off debts. He escaped to be captured by the Senecas.Meanwhile, the sheriff of Susquehanna arrested his father for being squatters.George Croghan, governor of Pennsylvania, had put up 1,500 pounds fee on Simon Girty, sr.Simon,sr. had a duel with a neighbor and died.Samuel Sanders was arrested for murder of Simon,sr. Thomas McGhee and George Gibson took over the Girty land.Simon’s mother married Simon,sr.’s half-brother, John Turney. They had a son, John,jr. in 1754.
When Simon Girty gained the trust of the Senecas, he was put through the gauntlet to be initiated into the tribe. He was 15, by then. The Senecas pulled out all his hair, except a scalp lock. They gave him leather breech cloth,leather leggings, deerskin shirt, and moccasins.He was adopted by Guyasuta, chief of the Senecas.The Senecas fought at Ft. Duquesne in 1758. They allied with Pontiac for his war in 1763.
Even though, Girty was returned to the white culture, he preferred the Senecas ways.
By 1764, he learned 11 languages.He served under Gen. Henry Bouquet at Ft. Pitt. He was there at Treaty of Ft. Stanwix, the first treaty America had with the Senecas.He was interpreter there.
In Lord Dunsmore War, he served alongside George Rogers Clark,Simon Kenton, Daniel Boone, and William Caldwell, sr.The Indians were defeated at Point Pleasant, Ohio.Chief Cornstalk of the Mingos signed Treaty of Camp Charlotte. Dunsmore had sent Girty to capture Johnny Logan, who was an Indian thatwas friendly to Americans, until they took his land and killed his family.Girty listened to Logan and refused to capture him. Simon was sent to become a lieutenant after Revolutionary War started. He was with Virginia militia, until it disbanded.Simon Girty helped in an early draft of Declaration of Independence. Dunsmore had created the Intolerable Act of 1775, that banned any protests and he had right to put down any uprisings. Girty objected and said to Jefferson to fight against this Act, which was included as grievances against the Crown in Declaration.
Simon Kenton, Daniel Boone,George Rogers Clark, and Simon Girty defied the 1763 Proclamation that said no one from Colonies to cross the Appalachians.
In 1778, Simon Girty went with General Hand and his troops to Cuyogha . There they found a settlement of Lenapes, who were friendly to Americans.General Hand ordered a massacre.That was the last straw.
Simon left with 2 slaves when he heard from Kenton that the Great Lakes Indians were joining a Northwest Confederacy against the whites.He had seen the murder of mother and brother of Capt. Pipe of the Lenapes. He declared war on the Americans.His brothers James and George went with him.Pennsylvania declared the Girtys as outlaws and placed an $800 bond on Simon Girty.
Simon Girty reached Detroit to serve under British commander,Henry Hamilton, for 16 shillings a day.
He led a massacre at Dayton, KY. in 1779.
In 1782, Simon Girty was under William Caldwell, the father of Billy Caldwell.With 300 Shawnees and Canadians, they attecked Bryan Station, KY.3 day later, they were at Battle of Blue Licks.Daniel Boone’s son Israel was killed there. Daniel Boone was there.Later, Tecumseh, who was there, bragged he killed Israel Boone.
The Shawnee captured and killed American Col.William Crawford. One witness claimed Girty pleaded for Crawford’s life.
Simon Girty was hired by George Morgan as interpreter and mediator for Six Nations with the British. It was second Treaty of Stanwix. He was later fired.
He was at the defeat of Gov. Arthur St. Clair in 1791. He was with Little Turtle. He went to Canada in 1795.
He reluctantly took part in war of 1812, saw the death and defeat of Tecumseh.He was arthritic and failing eyesight by then. He died in 1818 on his farm near Amesburg, Ontario.

The New Atlantis 1627

Francis Bacon wrote an essay in shape of an adventure story called New Atlantis in 1627. It was a story of an English expedition that went to Peru and was going to China, but storm came and they were shipwrecked.They came upon land called Bensalem. Someone embarked from the island to warn them they cannot land there. The captain convinced the messenge that some of their sailors need medical attention. The messenger came back with another native to give them provisions and a scroll in 4 languages: Latin, Greek,Hebrew, and Spanish. The cover was marked by a cross with cherubim wings.
After awhile, they let the sailors come ashore.There they found religion and science separated.A Jewish sailor, Joabin,knew of the Cabala and saw the natives were familiar with it.
They saw a government that recognized the rights of women,abolition of slavery,elimination of debtors’ prison,freedom of speech,separation of church and state.
At that time, in Great Britain, James I was declared the New Solomon and London was New Jerusalem.
Johannes Kelpius introduced Rosicrucianism to the US in late 17th century. He helped found the Royal Society of Science in England.
Bacon never completed his book. Yet, many came to America inspired by this writing and even called America The New Atlantis. Most of the ideas in the Constitution were inspired by this book.As for the scroll, it was a history of the island and how refugees from Rome, Athens, and Spain ended up there.

St. Andrew

From the Greek Andreas,which means manly valor. He was the First Called disciple of Jesus. He was a brother of St. Peter and a disciple of John the Baptist. One of Andrew’s disciples became First Patriarch of Constantinople.
He may have been born around 5 BC in Bethsaida, Galilee. He was son of John Zebedee (Son of Thunder). Both he and his brother, Peter, had short tempers.He was a fisherman, like Peter. Peter lived in Capernaum.
He is usually pictured as an old man with long gray beard and long gray hair, holding a book or scroll, sometimes leaning on a hanging fishnet.
After Jesus’ Ascension, Andrew went north to preach to the Scythians, along the Black Sea. He may have gone as far north as Kiev and Novgorod.He established the See of Byzantium ( later called Constantinople)in 38 AD.He installed his disciple Stachnys as bishop of Byzantium, later Patriarch. He preached to the Thracians and Greeks.He became patron saint of the Patriarchs.
He was crucified at Patras, Achaea.He was bonded and nailed to an X-shaped cross. He said he was not worthy to be crucified the same way as Jesus.
There was an apocryphal book, Acts of Andrew, but Leucius Charinus was said to have written it in 260 AD.It was removed from the Bible in the fourth century, by Pope Gelasius I. Pope Gelasius was last of the Berber popes.That was around 492 AD. He was Pope in 492-96.
St. Andrew becamepatron saint of the Scots and his symbol X wa on the Scottish flag. It was also on the Confederate flag, but the designer denied it was St. Andrew’s cross. His festival is November 30.

A Walk in a Wintery Wild White Pines Woods

I walked one winter through
A white pines woods.
Green needles on the branches,
On the ground brown needles.
Decayed leaves dampen sounds.
So quiet.
Up in the blue gray sky a jet went by.
I heard its muffled sound and wondered
If the passengers ever notice the woods below.
A dog barking far of.
I heard some muffled sounds of animals moving
Through the woods.
Suddenly, I thought of a lost love
That I hadn’t thought of in a long time.
I dream of lost dreams of a lost love.

One Neon summer moon night

The cool breeze was a relief
From the hot summer day.
The neon moon came up.
My buddies and I heard of a party
Down the road.
We stopped at red neon lettered store and got
Some beer. Then my buddies started talking
About some mundane stuff. I sat
On the pew outside holding the six pack.
I was getting sleepy from their conversation.
” Come on, we got to go.” said I.
‘Shut up! We are talking grown up stuff here.”
Said one of my buddies.
I was about to sleep,
When one of my buddies shook me up.
“Let’s go,” said he.
I heard the frogs and kingfishers nearby.
Men and women inside the ranch house.
Booze all around.
I connected with a pretty gal
And we played some card game.
Before I knew it, my buddies wanted to go.
” But I didn’t get her name.”
One of my buddies knew her and said she was so- and so.
Yet, no numbers exchanged, so much a hurry my buddies left.

Stop Moving

When my daughter was little,
She would come up to me
With brush and hair tie.
“Braid my hair, Daddy,”
She would say.
Then, she would look at me
With adoring eyes
While I brush her hair
And part it three ways.
Then, I would start to braid.
She would move her head
To get a better view of me
With adoring eyes.
“Stop moving around,”
I would say.
Finally, my then wife took over
Braiding her hair.
As I watched her grow up,
Sometimes I would be tempted
To say, “Stop moving.”


Giuseppi Garibaldi was born 1807, died in 1882. He was declared Father of the Fatherland after his death. He was born in Nice, France of Italian parents. After 1814,Nice became part of Vienna and Austro-Hungarian Empire. His family moved to Sardinia. His family were sea merchants and he followed in their footsteps. He became a merchant marine captain in 1832.
In Russia, in 1833, he met Giovanni Cuneo, who, in turned, introduced to the secret society, Young Italians, which was lead by Giuseppe Mazzini. Mazzini wanted an united Italy, under Republican rule. From then on Garibaldi swore to unite Italy into a liberal Republic. Austria dominated northern Italy. Later that year, he met Mazzini in Geneva, Switzerland. Mazzini had him jopin another secret society, The Carboneri. He joined Mazzini in a failed attempt to create an insurrection in the Piedmont. Genoa sentenced him to death. He fled to Marseilles.
From there, he went to Tunisia. Then to Brazil. He joined the Ragmuffins, a radical group in Brazil. There he met Ana de Silva, his future wife. She fought by his side during their whole marriage.
In 1841, he and Anita (his name for her) moved to Monte Video, Uruguay. He worked there as a trader and schoolmaster. The couple married a year later. They had 4 children. Anita was a skilled horse woman and taught Garibaldi how to be a gaucho. Around this time, he wore a red shirt, poncho, and sombrero, which he was known for the rest of his life.
In 1842, he formed the Italian Legion of Italian refugees in Uruguay. They were also known as The Red Shirts. The Italian Legion flew a black flag.
In 1844, he was initiated into Freemasonry in Uruguay. At the time, Latin American Masons made asylums for Europeans fleeing from their countries. Later, he became Grand Master of his Masonic Lodge, The Grand Orient of Italy.
Pope Pius IX was elected and promised reforms in 1846.
In 1849, Garlbaldi led a revolt in Palermo with 60 of Legion. From there, he went on to the Piedmont, Lombardy, Milan. It was the First Italian War of Independence. He went to the Papal States that claimed to be a Republic. Louis Napoleon ( Napoleon III) toppled over the Republic of Rome. Garibaldi went to Rome to defend it against the French.
In 1849, The Italian Republican Army under Garibaldi defeated the French, but the French came back and sieged Rome. Garibaldi escaped to the Apennines. Garibaldi was hunted down by the French, Austrians, Spanish, and Naples. He fled north to Venice. There, he fought the Austrians. His wife, Anita, died, giving birth to their 5th child.
Garibaldi went on to Tunisia. There, he returned to sea trading. He purchased his ship in NYC. Antonio Meucci had hired him as a candlestick maker in Staten Island.
In 1851, he left NYC for Central America. From there, he went on to Lima, Peru. There he met the revolutionary heroine,Manuela Saenz. He had commanded a trade ship, then. It had stopped at Chincha Island for guano. He went on to Canton, China, Manila, Philippines, India, Australia, Cape Horn, Chili, Boston and back to NYC.
Then, he left for Europe in 1853. He went to England. He went to Genoa in 1854. He settled down as a farmer in Caparera.
In 2nd Italian War of Independence in 1859, he was appointed as Major General of Italian Republican Army. He won victories over Austrians. Meanwhile, French surrendered Nice to Italy.
In 1860, he married Giuseppini Raimadi. That lasted a day.
He led uprisings in Messia and Palermo. He left Genoa to Marsala, Sicily with his Red Shirts. He declared himself as Dictator of Sicily. He had help from the British Royal Navy. He went on to Naples.
He retired to his farm in Caprera. He was commissioned as Major General, again.
In 1861, he set up the International Legion of Poles, Swiss, and Genoans to form Republics from Adriatic to the Baltic.
He went to Papal States and attacked Rome where Napoleon III held it. His motto was Rome or Death. He defeated Napoleon.
In 1866,Autro-Prussian War broke. Italy sided with the Prussians and Garibaldi volunteered in the Italian Army.
He came back to Rome, where French took over again. There, he was wounded and taken prison by the French. Garibaldi was released. He sought to end the Papacy.
Franco-Prussian War of 1870. The Italian Army captured the Papal states. Garibaldi supported the French 3rd Republic.
In 1879, he founded the League of Democracy.He pushed for universal suffrage, abolition of ecclesial property, emancipation of women. In 1880, he married for last time to Francisca Armosino. He contracted arthritis soon after. He died in 1882.